Who is accountable?
The Responsibility of Member States and the UN
All member states and institutions of the UN must follow the decision of the Security Council. Therefore, member states are responsible for implementing the goals of the resolution in their respective countries. All actors working to prevent conflict, disarm troops, and rebuild post-conflict societies are required to follow the resolution.
Some of the responsibilities of the UN member states are to:
§ 1, ensure increased representation of women in decisionmaking in national, regional, and international institutions and mechanisms to prevent, handle and solve conflicts
§ 3, provide names to a central roster of candidates for delegations and advisors within the UN
§ 6, increase its support to educational projects focusing on gender within UN-entities and funds, for instance to UN Women and UNICEF
§ 8, introduce a gender perspective in negotiations and peace talks with a focus to meet the special needs of women and girls in societies that are to be rebuilt after conflict
Read the Swedish National Action Plan in English.
The Responsibility of Civil Society
It is imperative that civil society holds its governments accountable to implementing resolution 1325. Some methods involve supervising relevant governmental agencies, educating actors in peace processes, advocating for responsible politicians and ministries, and strengthening the organization of women’s groups.
What happens if the resolution is not effectively implemented?
Failure to Implement Resolution 1325 Gives a Bad Reputation
Resolution 1325 is a *recommendation, not a legally binding rule. This is because there is no system of sanction in place within the UN to punish those who do not implement the resolution. Nevertheless, crimes against the intentions of the resolution can result in a bad reputation.
Implications of Inclusion in Peace-Mission Mandates
There are a few ways to make resolution 1325 legally binding, international law. The Security Council can make decisions under chapter VII of the UN Charter and include resolution 1325. The resolution can, for instance, be part of the mandate of a UN-mission in which the UN becomes responsible over a state in conflict. This can happen when a country commits crimes against its own people and is thereby considered a threat against human rights and international peace. In that case, the UN can use both force and punishment.
A Resolution Based on International Law
It is worth noting that resolution 1325 is based on international law. This means that those who commit crimes against human rights can be tried in court.
For the first time, in the year 2000, the Security Council defined the role of women before, during, and after armed conflict as a security issue. However, the content of the resolution was already part of other conventions and declarations regarding human rights.
Here are some examples:
- UN Charter demand to respect all people’s equality without discriminating based on gender
- UN convention on torture, which includes the prohibition of sexual violence
Since the year 2000 there have also been court decisions from war tribunals and international courts that state that systematic rape during armed conflict constitutes a crime against humanity.
*Resolution 1325 is a decision under chapter VI of the UN Charter. Consequently, there is no legal and/or economic sanction tied to the resolution.