Resolution 1820 (June 2008)
Resolution 1820 (June 2008)
Resolution 1820 is sprung out of resolution 1325. It deals with sexual violence against civilians during armed conflict and condemns rape and other forms of sexualised violence during conflict. Through this resolution the Security Council states, for the first time, that systematic rape constitutes a threat against international peace and security. The Security Council also states that rape can constitute a war crime, a crime against humanity, or genocide. It requires that all parties intervene against sexual violence and see to it that perpetrators are brought to court.
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Resolution 1888 (October 2008)
Resolution 1888 came as a logical development from resolution 1325. In addition to other measures, it mandates the Secretary General to appoint a special representative for the work against sexual violence in armed conflicts. The Secretary General is also held responsible for employing a team with experts on sexual violence in armed conflicts, whose task it is to safeguard women’s security in UN Peacekeeping missions. The resolution demands that regular reports be sent to the Security Council on how resolution 1820 is being implemented.
In February 2010, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon appointed Margot Wallström as his special representative to keep watch against sexual violence against women in armed conflicts.
Resolution 1889 (October 2009)
UNSCR 1889 strengthens resolutions 1325, 1820, and 1888, with the aim to increase women’s participation in peace processes and to combat sexual violence in conflicts. UNSCR 1889 contains stronger demands on reporting that require the UN to work wtih member states and civil society to identify the security situation of women and to measure the extent to which they are participating as decision-makers. The resolution also highlights the importance of cooperation between member states when it comes to sharing knowledge and experiences in effectively implementing UNSCR 1325.
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Resolution 1960 (December 2010)
UNSCR 1960 strengthens efforts to prevent sexual violence in conflict. The primary objective of the resolution is to fight impunity. In his/her yearly reports, the General Secretary is to name and list perpetrators and exercise sanctions against them. The resolution also contains recommendations to create an infrastructure within the UN-system for reporting about early warnings of sexual violence. It strongly encourages investigations of these reports in order to coordinate more effective missions. UNSCR 1960 also indicates that the General Secretary is to gather information from women’s organisations and victims of sexual violence on a regular basis.
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Resolution 2106 (June 2013)
This resolution deals primarily with sexual violence as part of warfare, how to counteract it and handle the consequences. The resolution states that sexual violence in conflict is to be regarded as a war crime, and that it can be classified as a crime against humanity or as a method of genocide in some situations. The resolution emphasizes the importance of preventing sexual violence in conflict and bringing perpetrators to justice, which International Criminal Court (ICC) has facilitated. The resolution also calls for the continuation and development of preventive and advisory work, including Resolution 1888, and reiterates the importance of women’s participation in preventive work and in mediation and peace processes.
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Resolution 2122 (October 2013)
Resolution 2122 deals mainly with the importance of women’s full participation in the peace process as well as in other sectors of society. It stresses that the issue of gender equality must be taken with the utmost importance to fully implement Resolution 1325. Equality between the sexes and women’s inclusion is a prerequisite for sustainable peace and a stable society, and more analysis and information work is required to achieve this. The resolution encourages the Secretary-General with staff to regularly consult women’s organizations and to inform mediating parties about gender aspects of peace building by making experts on the subject available, and enhancing female participation in, all UN member states. The resolution also refers to the increased participation of women in peacekeeping troops, judiciaries, electoral processes, security and reconstruction processes.
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Resolution 2242 (October 2015)
Resolution 2242 builds on the existing women, peace, and security (WPS) framework by providing a road map for implementation of 1325 and the accompanying resolutions towards increasing women’s leadership in peace making and conflict prevention. It emphasizes greater integration of the WPS and counter-terrorism and countering violent extremism agendas. It calls for improved Security Council working methods on WPS and directs attention to persistent obstacles to implementation including funding and institutional reforms. It urges UN bodies to increase their efforts to integrate women’s needs and a gender perspective in their planning. In addition, it establishes the Security Council’s Informal Experts Group (IEG) on WPS which Sweden is a co-chair for 2017. The IEG is guided by the principles that through information gathering and analysis together with direct interactions with field missions will lead to better oversight and greater implementation women, peace and security norms in specific country situations.
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